Tag Archives: Civil Disobedience

Colombia: Students Organize Against Law 30

4 Jan

Student kisses police

Student kisses police as an alternative to violence

Colombia's Hug-A-Thon

Students hug riot police


Last year was one of action in Colombia. Not because of anything to do with the FARC or drug cartels. No, what Colombia saw last year was students uniting together for a common cause. If any of the Occupy protesters in the US want a lesson in creative, effective, nonviolent protest they need only to look to Colombia. Colombia joined Chile in student protests when the first draft of the proposed reform of Law 30 was announced.

March of last year, President Juan Manuel Santos announced the need to reform higher education. He proposed a reform of the 1992 law, Law 30, a law which deals with higher education. The reform attempted to privatize education by encouraging private investment and by creating for-profit schools.

The students are against the reform of Law 30 for several reasons. The law would allow private investors to fund public universities which would force students to acquire debt and decrease public resources. Some students say that private funding is a step toward corporate control of the education system. Sara Yaneth Fernandez, vice-president of the Association of Professors for the University of Antioquia, was quoted saying, “Public education has a social interest. Private organizations have personal profit interests,” adding, “We are against changing the essence of the public universities in Colombia.”

The law would also increase the number of students in the classrooms which would mean the student to teacher ratio would increase and students would have less access to supplies. The students call this a ‘promotion of mediocrity’ by threatening the quality of education. Students also protest that the law reform would discourage education to develop skills for innovation and self-transformation. They say that they would be taught ‘to push the button, not to create the machine that made it’. Students are also concerned that subjects like humanities would be seen as ‘unprofitable’ and be dropped. The law would turn education into a product rather than a right. Justifiably, this proposed reform made students across the country irate and they took to the streets to voice that anger.

On April 7, thousands of students and teachers took to the streets of Medellin, and even more nation wide, in opposition to the education reforms. They closed down several main streets in the city. As a result of the protests the Minister of Education, Maria Fernanda Campo, said she would open a national debate with students. Later in August, after much public unrest regarding Law 30, President Santos promised to withdraw the for-profit section of the proposal of the reform. However, on September 7th thousands of students took to the streets in Bogotá to continue protesting Law 30. The students stated that the Law was still an attack on education.

President Santos presented the bill to Congress on October 4th, however, the bill seemed to not reflect any prior deliberations or debates, it only exhibited the government’s interests. That week the President addressed the student protests and reaffirmed the government’s commitment to the proposal of reform of Law 30. He criticized the students who continued to protest saying, “there is no worse deaf person than one who doesn’t want to hear.”

Following President Santos’ actions, on October 12th, there was a huge nationwide protest against Law 30. In Bogotá, 30,000 marched in the streets to Plaza Bolivar. Riot police clashed with protesters and used tear gas to attempt to disperse the protesters. In Medellin, 10,000 marched in the streets, nationally over 250,000 students took to the streets. Tragedy found the protests that day when a medical student in Cali fell down during the protest and activated a potato bomb which killed him. While a small minority of protesters resorted to violence and vandalism, the majority of the protesters across the country remained nonviolent and peaceful. The students gave the government the deadline of November 10th to completely withdraw the bill or they would block major streets in all participating cities.

By the end of October students nationwide were on strike and not attending classes or school activities, instead they were on the streets trying to defend their right to education. They did so peacefully and creatively by having a hug-a-thon where they hugged police instead of confronting them. They had a besatón where they blocked major city streets by kissing each other. They organized flashmobs in malls and open canelazos, a national beverage used to gather people around the fire which incited public deliberation. There protests were peaceful, creative and persistent.

On November 9th President Santos offered to withdraw the proposal of Law 30. Still it was no enough for protesters who were out on the streets in protest the following day. Bogotá saw over 20,000 students on the street protesting, despite the rain. The students said they would continue to protest until the law was actually withdrawn.

Then in the middle of November, after students had been on strike for five weeks, the Congress voted to withdraw reform of Law 30. Students and activists hailed the vote as a victory. The National Alternative Education Board said in a statement, “there were three conditions – first, that this reform package was withdrawn; second, that the government showed a willingness to build a new reform package, and lastly that there were guarantees regarding finishing the semester. All this has been accepted by the government and so we will end the strike right now.” While students vowed to return to class, and ninety percent did, there will still some who did not view this as a victory. Students at University of Antioquia, for example, felt that there were more demands to be met.

For those of us that study social movements or even those of us that have been following the failing ‘Occupy’ protests, Colombia’s students were victorious. Despite what the Colombian government may say the protesters had clear demands, they were persistent and despite a very small percentage they were peaceful and nonviolent. The government met their demands and the protesters ended their strike and returned to school. Yet, no social movements are ever completely over, there is always a next step. With this movement the protesters must make sure that the government does not try to implement the proposed reforms in another matter. Regrettably, I believe that Colombian students will have to take to the streets again in order to defend their education, but hopefully not in the near future.

Chile- The Fight for Education

15 Sep

You don’t have to spend that much time with me before I start to bring up Latin American current affairs or make references to Latin American policies. It is no secret that it aggravates me that the news in the US is blasted with events in the Middle East but yet you truly have to dig to find out what his happening in Latin America, a region right next to us. That’s why it is no surprise to me that while, recently, it has been impossible to escape news on protests in Egypt and Libya; I have heard nothing about Chile’s student protests in the mainstream media here. No, I learned about it the way I normally have to learn about what is happening in Latin America by following the right people on Twitter and knowing where to dig on news sites. It saddens me because what is happening today in Chile is historical and something Latin America and the world could learn a lot from.

Protests for education have been happening recently across Latin America, from Puerto Rico, to the Dominican Republic, to Mexico and to Colombia. However, the protests in Chile have gained the most attention as students, educators and Chilean citizens have been continuously protesting since May. The protests in Chile have brought together hundreds of thousands of Chileans across the country, the country has not seen protests this large-scale since the return of democracy in 1990.

The protesters are fighting an unequal and segregated education system which has become more privatized recently. The protesters want public school to be run by Chile’s Education Ministry, instead of local governments. Public schools being run by local government increases the inequality between rich and poor districts. Chilean officials have focused primarily on access to education as opposed to quality and equality. The quality of public school education is extremely poor.

Meanwhile, to attend a university, even if it is public, students have to pay enormous amounts of money. “They know that Chilean universities are the most expensive places to study, that advancing in higher education depends more on the university you leave than your own merits, that success isn’t guaranteed.”, said Bernardo Navarrete, a political analyst at the University of Santiago. Chile has the most complex financing system of education in the region. The education climate that people are experiencing in Chile is one where a parent has to decide which child to send to college. Higher education fees are normally higher than minimum wage. Only a small percent of Chilean youth, the wealthy percent, have access to quality schools and do not have to go into lifelong debt to receive it.

Why is education so important? Education is the foundation to the society, with strong education comes strong leadership and positive change. To simply put it, better education will lead to a better country. The musical group Calle 13 has been publicly supporting the movement in Chile. The leader Rene Perez was quoted saying, “Education is fundamental. The easiest thing for a government is to have a public that is uneducated so that they won’t fight for their rights. There needs to be free and public education.” When a country has free, public, quality education there are more opportunities for the middle and lower classes to achieve a higher economic level, society gaps close. With more educated minds there are more people to contribute to the country, more minds to work on scientific, technological, and of course political problems. That is why education is so important, and why free, quality education needs to be achieved not only in Chile but across Latin America.

The protests in Chile started as isolated boycotts by high school and university students. In early June protests started with anything from pillow fights in the streets to a huge flash mob of students dressed like zombies dancing to ‘Thriller’, to traditional peaceful rallies. Since the beginning of June hundreds of thousands of high-school and university students have been boycotting their classes as a means of protest. Several cacerolazos (a protest consisting of banging pots and pans) have been carried out. Protesters have also been occupying University of Chile’s campus, right next to the Presidential Palace. The protests have been large, although the Chilean government will try to convince you otherwise, and they have been consistently occurring for months.

On August 1st, the government announced 21 policies and proposals for the development of education including writing into the constitution the right to quality education. However, on August 5th, protest leaders rejected the government’s proposal stating that they want a profound change to the system not just an improvement. A few days later there were mass protests across the country. The news focused mainly on the violence cause by few protesters who broke off from the crowd, but the majority of protesters remained peaceful. Mostly, it was the police whom acted aggressively with the protesters firing water cannons and tear gas into the crowd. Since the protests started two students have been killed by bullets and hundreds of student protesters have been arrested.

Pinera’s government has scrambled to try to end the protests which have cause a nose dive in his popularity. On September 3rd, the President met with student leaders. Both sides discussed a twelve point petition submitted by the Confederation of Chilean Students that outlined demands for education reform. While the two sides agreed on some issues, like a constitutional guarantee to the right of quality education, they also disagreed on many central topics. Most recently, Chile’s Education Minister proposed working groups to find solutions to the conflict for education reform. Just this past Monday students handed over a counter-proposal with four guarantees they want from the government before participating in working groups. The guarantees were: to freeze two bills given to congress in August on education reform that were drafted with no student nor teacher input, to have TV and online coverage of the working groups, to end state funding for profit-based education institutions and, lastly, postponement of the end of the first academic semester, which could leave thousands of students without credit for a partially completed semester. The protesters have been quoted many times saying that they have no idea how this all will end, but they know they are making some sort of change.

One unique aspect of these protests has been who has been at the head leading the masses, the face of the uprising, Camilla Vallejo. Vallejo is a 23-year-old student who serves as President of the University of Chile’s Student Union. Vallejo has her own police protection now, after receiving several death threats. Vallejo has always preached peace to the protesters reminding them that the fight is not against the police but a peaceful fight for education. When discussing Vallejo I can’t help but compare and contrast her with Mexico’s Javier Sicilia (who you can read about in my What the Heck is going on in Mexico? blog) They both are the faces of movements for hope of a better future for each of their respected countries. They both emphasize maintaining peace in their movements and protests and both won’t settle or make half way deals with their governments. However, unlike Sicilia, Vallejo is not an old man in a cowboy hat and a multi-pocketed vest, no Vallejo’s youth and beauty has captivated the nation and the world. Vallejo is very aware of this and uses it to her advantage. She was quoted saying, “You have to recognize that beauty can be a hook. It can be a compliment, they come to listen to me because of my appearance, but then I explain the ideas. A movement as historical as this cannot be summarized in such superficial terms.” And unlike Sicilia, Vallejo is still very young, and it is because of this that Chile is buzzing with hopes of a political future for her.

There is no way of telling what the end result of this movement in Chile will be. But this movement has already accomplished so much I can only imagine that this movement is headed towards success. Perhaps Chile will be a model for movements for education reform across Latin America, a catalyst for movements in the region. They are already happening in Latin America, but from what I have seen they have not reached the level of Chile. I have not followed many of the other education movements closely, except for the Dominican Republic’s 4% movement. Last year, there were calls for the Dominican government to increase the amount of the GDP spent on education to 4%. Two days last year the entire country wore yellow in support of the movement. But there needs to be more, the Dominican needs to follow Chile’s model it’s laid down. The Dominicans, and other citizens of Latin American countries, need to hit the streets in peaceful protest and continue to protest until their demands are met. Today Chile is seen as the beginning of a huge shift in Latin America. Hopefully one day, Chile, the Dominican Republic, and all of Latin America will have education that is accessible to all, free for all and of high quality for all.

I want to leave you with the video of the Chilean students ‘Thriller’ flash mob. (Take note of the stray dogs trying to figure out what is going on) Thriller

Anonymously Annoying

23 Aug

I am diverging in this blog from my normal subject of Latin America to something which is aggravating my daily life. As a BART commuter I can’t help but be annoyed by the group Anonymous’ recent antics.

I am full support of protest, social movements and civil disobedience but not of this sort. The group Anonymous claims to be protesting for BART riders when in reality the only people being hurt by their protests are BART riders. They started their protests by hacking into BART’s website and releasing thousands of innocent BART riders personal information. A few days later, they protested in the Civic Center BART station which briefly disrupted trains. The next week, they again protested at Civic Center which they shut down, then they continued their protest down Market Street which led to the closure of the Powell and Embarcadero stations. This is when it all really started to grab my attention as I get on BART at Embarcadero to head home to the East Bay, if I were a little late getting on BART last Monday I would have been stranded in the city struggling to get home. On the News they interviewed commuters stranded in the city waiting for the stations to reopen so that they could go home, they mentioned how they were tired and hungry. The News interviewed other commuters who had to used their sick time so that they could leave work early to try to avoid the mayhem.

Then, yesterday, Anonymous had yet another protest, this one commuters seemed to better anticipate. As I was watching the Morning News they said that traffic was higher than normal most likely because people weren’t taking BART. When I got on the train in the morning everything seemed pretty normal. It was when I was coming home when I noticed the difference. I left work five minutes early to try to get out of San Francisco before the expected protest at 5PM. When I got to the station it seemed empty, not at all packed like it normally is on Monday at 5PM. Then around 5:20 PM when I was already close to home, there was a message on the train stating that Civic Center station was closed due to civil disobedience and no trains would be stopping at the station. Immediately all of my fellow riders moaned and rolled their eyes. Now, not to be misunderstood, our eye rolling was not from frustration from BART but rather frustration from these protesters disrupting people trying to get home. When I got to the Walnut Creek station I was surprised to see the parking garage virtually empty and an unusual backup of cars trying to get out of the garage. It appeared that other commuters must have left their work a lot earlier than I did to try to avoid the protests.

When I got home I turned on the News to see live coverage of the protests. The Announcer said that there was about eighty protesters. As I scanned the crowed these protesters did not look like the social justice workers I am used to seeing at protests, those that thoroughly study an issue before they head out to speak their minds on it. But rather young people, looking not all that different from the young people I saw beating each other up at this weekend’s 49er-Raiders game.(As a side note that was my first NFL game ever and will be my last. I’ve never felt so unsafe at a sporting event. It was out of control mayhem.) The protesters also did not look like the people who I ride BART with everyday. The protesters seemed like people who were out on the street because they are mad at their current situation and wanted to protest something. I doubted that any of them could give a logical argument for the protest. Then suddenly the Announcer stopped and the camera turned as a frustrated commuter walked by and shouted something at the protesters and then was chased down Market by half the protesters in the camera’s shot. I quickly thought this is not the civil disobedience that I support, this is sickening and needs to be stopped.

Now, I am not arguing that BART’s actions over the past year have been commendable. From the killing of Oscar Grant to the killing of the homeless man to cutting off riders cell phone service to disrupt a protest BART is in dire need of restructure and investigation. I myself have been personally frustrated with BART several times. I can not tell you how many parking tickets I have received because I was forced to park in the wrong spot because they do not offer enough parking and the permits for parking are not available. But Anonymous’ actions are no way to deal with BART’s problems.

My first concerns with Anonymous is that they have no organizational structure, there is no leadership or clearly defined strategy. Also, instead of calling it protesting the group calls its actions ‘attacks’ a extremely more violent word. The main problem at the center of Anonymous’ antics is that all of its actions have hurt BART riders not BART itself. The main victim at the center of the groups’ actions have been the people whom they are supposedly advocating for. How can you protest for justice for BART riders when all you are doing is hurting them?

I am not in support of civil disobedience that is not peaceful, that harms innocent civilians. The protests in Chile have been supreme examples of what civil disobedience should look like. Pillow fights, dance numbers and joining together for a common cause. The protests in Chile have remained peaceful, the students did not turn violent, even when the police turned violent on them. Not at all like Anonymous who last night threw stink bombs at police at broke the glass of bus stations, who have been seen climbing on the BART trains to prevent them from moving. The Anonymous protests have not been organized, thought out and in my mind no intellect has been used whatsoever when it comes to their actions.

The majority of BART riders are not CEOs or people of high income. Most BART riders are average folk who may not be able to afford commuting to work by car. A lot of BART riders are people who are environmentally conscious and for that reason decide to take public transit. A lot of BART riders are like me, that can barely afford the daily BART commute but since it is cheaper than commuting by car deal with it. They do not deserve to take the blow from Anonymous’ actions. Many of us riders cannot afford taking any more sick time to avoid Anonymous’ brutality, we also cannot afford taking a taxi out of the city once we have been stranded due to Anonymous’ attacks. I cannot believe how ignorant Anonymous is to the fact that the victims of their actions are those whom they are trying to defend. However, at the same time it make sense that a group with absolutely no coherent cause would be not only be ineffective but attack to the innocent public.

Now, it has been reported that Anonymous is planning yet another protest next Monday. One that once again will make BART riders leave work early to try to avoid. However, I suggest that us BART riders unite together against Anonymous and say enough is enough. BART riders should meet together in open forum and discuss issues they are not happy with and then present them to BART and then work together from there. But this disruptive, angry mob will never accomplish anything beyond making BART riders frustrated.

Anonymous we BART riders do not appreciate whatever it is that you were trying to do but please cease and desist. Let us figure this out without you.